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The modern history of Western pornography begins with the Enlightenment 18th century , when printing technology had advanced enough to permit the production of written and visual materials to appeal to audiences of all socioeconomic levels and sexual tastes.

A small underground traffic in such works became the basis of a separate publishing and bookselling business in England. Apart from its sexual element, pornography became a powerful vehicle for social and political protest.

It provided a vehicle for the exploration of daring ideas that were condemned by both church and state , including sexual freedom for women as well as for men and the practices of contraception and abortion.

Much pornography also focused on the misdeeds of royals and aristocrats, thereby contributing to the discrediting of the elites of Europe.

Perhaps the most important author of socially radical pornography was the Marquis de Sade , whose books—notably Justine —combined orgiastic scenes with long philosophical debates on the evils of property and traditional social hierarchy.

Pornography continued to flourish during the Victorian Age in Britain and in the United States despite—or perhaps because of—the taboos on sexual topics that were characteristic of the era.

An important periodical of the era was The Pearl —80 , which included serialized novels, short stories, crude jokes, poems, and ballads containing graphic descriptions of sexual activity.

Such works provide a valuable corrective to conventional images of Victorian prudery. In the 19th century the inventions of photography and later of motion pictures were quickly put to use in the production of pornography.

Pornographic films were widely available no later than the s, and in the s their popularity enjoyed a massive upsurge. The development of videocassettes in the s and digital videodiscs DVDs in the s enabled the wide distribution of pornographic films and further encouraged their use because they could be viewed in private.

Pornographic images and films became even more widely available with the emergence of the Internet in the s.

The pornographic industry became one of the most profitable on the Internet. Apart from providing a vast marketplace for commercial pornography appealing to many diverse tastes, the Internet also encouraged many amateurs to post images of themselves, images that often challenged traditional concepts of beauty and sex appeal.

The use of webcams opened the industry even further to amateurs, allowing individuals to post live depictions of themselves, often for fees. The Internet also increased the availability of child pornography.

Pornography has long been condemned and legally proscribed in the belief that it depraves and corrupts both minors and adults and that it leads to the commission of sex crimes.

Occasionally, important artistic or even religious works have been banned because they are considered pornographic under such assumptions.

Those assumptions have been challenged on legal and scientific grounds. Nonetheless, the production, distribution, or possession of pornographic materials may be prosecuted in many countries under statutes dealing with obscenity.

Although legal standards vary widely, most countries in Europe and North America permit depictions of sexual activity that would have been deemed grossly and criminally pornographic just a few decades ago.

The only remaining taboo that is nearly universally accepted is the condemnation of child pornography. Article Media. Info Print Cite.

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In the s, the word " pinup " was coined to describe pictures torn from men's magazines and calendars and "pinned up" on the wall by U.

While the '40s images focused mostly on legs, by the '50s, the emphasis shifted to breasts. Betty Grable and Marilyn Monroe were two of the most popular pinup models.

In the second half of the 20th century, pornography evolved into the men's magazines such as Playboy and Modern Man of the s.

In fact, the beginning of the modern men's glossy magazine or girlie magazine can be traced to the purchase by Hugh Hefner of a photograph of Marilyn Monroe to use as the centerfold of his new magazine Playboy.

Soon, this type of magazine was the primary medium in which pornography was consumed. In postwar Britain digest magazines such as Beautiful Britons , Spick and Span , with their interest in nylons and underwear and the racier Kamera published by Harrison Marks were incredibly popular.

These magazines featured nude or semi-nude women in extremely coy or flirtatious poses with no hint of pubic hair. Penthouse , started by Bob Guccione in England in , took a different approach.

Women looked indirectly at the camera, as if they were going about their private idylls. This change of emphasis was influential in erotic depictions of women.

Penthouse was also the first magazine to publish pictures that included pubic hair and full frontal nudity , both of which were considered beyond the bounds of the erotic and in the realm of pornography at the time.

In the late s, magazines began to move into more explicit displays often focusing on the buttocks as standards of what could be legally depicted and what readers wanted to see changed.

By the s, they were focusing on the pubic area and eventually, by the s, featured sexual penetration , lesbianism and homosexuality, group sex , masturbation, and fetishes in the more hard-core magazines such as Hustler.

Magazines for every taste and fetish were soon created due to the low cost of producing them. Magazines for the gay community flourished, the most notable and one of the first being Physique Pictorial , started in by Bob Mizer when his attempt to sell the services of male models; however, Athletic Model Guild photographs of them failed.

It was published in black and white, in a very clear yet photographic manner celebrating the male form and was published for nearly 50 years.

The magazine was innovative in its use of props and costumes to depict the now standard gay icons like cowboys , gladiators and sailors.

Production of erotic films commenced almost immediately after the invention of the motion picture. Also in Fatima's Coochie-Coochie Dance [54] was released as a short kinetoscope film featuring a gyrating belly dancer named Fatima.

Her gyrating and moving pelvis was censored, one of the earliest films to be censored. It was a second film loop, with a close-up of a nuzzling couple followed by a short peck on the lips "the mysteries of the kiss revealed".

The kissing scene was denounced as shocking and pornographic to early moviegoers and caused the Roman Catholic Church to call for censorship and moral reform - because kissing in public at the time could lead to prosecution.

Because Pirou is nearly unknown as a pornographic filmmaker, credit is often given to other films for being the first. In Black and White and Blue , one of the most scholarly attempts to document the origins of the clandestine 'stag film' trade, Dave Thompson recounts ample evidence that such an industry first had sprung up in the brothels of Buenos Aires and other South American cities by around the start of the 20th century, and then quickly spread through Central Europe over the following few years; however, none of these earliest pornographic films is known to survive.

According to Patrick Robertson's Film Facts , "the earliest pornographic motion picture which can definitely be dated is A L'Ecu d'Or ou la bonne auberge " made in France in ; the plot depicts a weary soldier who has a tryst with a servant girl at an inn.

The Argentinian El Satario might be even older; it has been dated to somewhere between and He also notes that "the oldest surviving pornographic films are contained in America's Kinsey Collection.

One film demonstrates how early pornographic conventions were established. The German film Am Abend is "a ten-minute film which begins with a woman masturbating alone in her bedroom, and progresses to scenes of her with a man performing straight sex, fellatio and anal penetration.

In Austria , Johann Schwarzer formed his Saturn-Film production company which was able to produce 52 erotic productions between and , when the company was dissolved by the censorship authorities and the films destroyed.

Soon illegal stag films or blue films, as they were called, were produced underground by amateurs for many years starting in the s.

Processing the film took considerable time and resources, with people using their bathtubs to wash the film when processing facilities often tied to organized crime were unavailable.

The films were then circulated privately or by traveling salesman but being caught viewing or possessing them put one at the risk of prison.

The post-war era saw developments that further stimulated the growth of a mass market. Technological developments, particularly the introduction of the 8mm and super-8 film gauges, resulted in the widespread use of amateur cinematography.

Entrepreneurs emerged to supply this market. On the continent, such films were more explicit. Lasse Braun was as a pioneer in quality colour productions that were, in the early days, distributed by making use of his father's diplomatic privileges.

Pornography was first legalized in Denmark July , [60] soon followed by the Netherlands the same year and Sweden in , and this led to an explosion of commercially produced pornography in those countries, with the Color Climax Corporation quickly becoming the leading pornographic producer for the next couple of decades.

Now that being a pornographer was a legitimate occupation, there was no shortage of businessmen to invest in proper plant and equipment capable of turning out a mass-produced, cheap, but quality product.

Vast amounts of this new pornography, both magazines and films, were smuggled into other parts of Europe, where it was sold "under the counter" or sometimes shown in "members only" cinema clubs.

The first explicitly pornographic film with a plot that received a general theatrical release in the U. As the first generally available gay pornographic film, the film was the first to include on-screen credits for its cast and crew albeit largely under pseudonyms , to parody the title of a mainstream film in this case, The Boys in the Band , and to be reviewed by The New York Times.

The Devil in Miss Jones followed in and many predicted that frank depictions of sex onscreen would soon become commonplace, with William Rotsler saying in , "Erotic films are here to stay.

Eventually they will simply merge into the mainstream of motion pictures and disappear as a labeled sub-division.

Nothing can stop this". By , most pornographic films were being shot on the cheaper and more convenient medium of videotape.

Many film directors resisted this shift at first because of the different image quality that video tape produced; however, those who did change soon were collecting most of the industry's profits since consumers overwhelmingly preferred the new format.

The technology change happened quickly and completely when directors realised that continuing to shoot on film was no longer a profitable option.

This change moved the films out of the theaters and into people's private homes. This was the end of the age of big budget productions and the mainstreaming of pornography.

It soon went back to its earthy roots and expanded to cover every fetish possible since filming was now so inexpensive. Instead of hundreds of pornographic films being made each year, thousands now were, including compilations of just the sex scenes from various videos.

Erotic CD-ROMs were popular in the late s and early s because they brought an unprecedented element of interactiveness and fantasy. However, their poor quality was a drawback and when the Internet became common in households their sales declined.

About the same time as the video revolution, the Internet became the preferred source of pornography for many people, offering both privacy in viewing and the chance to interact with people.

The recent influx of widely available technology such as digital cameras , both moving and still, has blurred the lines between erotic films, photographs and amateur and professional productions.

It allows easy access to both formats, making the production of them easily achieved by anyone with access to the equipment. Much of the pornography available today is produced by amateurs.

Digital media is revolutionary in that it allows photographers and filmmakers to manipulate images in ways previously not possible, heightening the drama or eroticism of a depiction.

High-definition video shows signs of changing the image of pornography as the technology is increasingly used for professional productions.

The porn industry was one of the first to adopt the technology and it may have been a deciding factor in the format competition between HD DVD and Blu-ray Disc.

Other adaptations have been different camera angles and techniques for close-ups and lighting. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Aspect of history. See also: Erotic literature and I Modi. Further information: Erotic photography. Further information: Pornographic magazine.

Further information: Pornographic film. Further information: Internet pornography. Human sexuality portal Erotica and pornography portal. Erotic art of the east; the sexual theme in oriental painting and sculpture.

New York: Putnam. April Roman Sex: B. New York: Harry N. Archived from the original on Retrieved Governing Pleasures. Pornography and Social Change in England, Rutgers University Press.

Medical lexicon. A dictionary of medical science , edition, s. Libido, The Journal of Sex and Sensibility. Libido Inc. Fall Georgetown Journal of Gender and The Law.

The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited. The British Museum Press. Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia.

Daily Life. Santa Barbara, California: Greenwood. Women in Ancient Egypt. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Turin erotic papyrus.

Archaeology Odyssey. Archaeologies of Sexuality. Abingdon-on-Thames, England: Psychology Press. The Getty Museum, J. Paul Getty Trust.

The Straight Dope. Chicago Reader. Sappho's Immortal Daughters. Sculpture Review. National Sculpture Society. American Anthropologist.

Japanese Architecture and Art net users system. October Pepin Press. Tuttle Publishing. Princeton University Press.

History Today. LOC Leon Battista Alberti's 'Hypnerotomachia Poliphili': re-cognizing the architectural body in the early Italian Renaissance.

Cambridge, Mass. Archived from the original on November 22, I Modi; the sixteen pleasures: an erotic album of the Italian Renaissance. Evanston: Northwestern University Press.

Libido, the Journal of Sex and Sensibility. The Shorter Pepys. Berkeley: University of California Press. On some remarkable, and hitherto unobserved, Phenomena of Binocular Vision".

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Royal Society of London. Glasgow University Library.

Intercultural Press. John, Kristen; Linda Zimmerman June Stanford library. Health and Efficiency Naturist. The Illustrated History of Girlie Magazines.

Planet Out History. PlanetOut Inc. Stephen Herbert; Luke McKernan eds. Who's Who of Victorian Cinema.

British Film Institute. Retrieved 15 October Armitage for the American Mutoscope and Biograph Company. Library of Congress. Retrieved 12 September Film Facts.

Billboard Books. Time Magazine. Time inc. Archived from the original on May 24, Denmark was the first country in the world to legitimize written pornography in followed by pictorial pornography in The Daily Texan.

Alyson Books. The Moving Image. University of Minnesota Press. BBC News. October 5, PC World. PC World Communications, Inc.

The New York Times. Human sexuality and sexology. Sexual relationship phenomena. Sexual addiction Sex Addicts Anonymous Sexual surrogate.

History of erotic depictions Pornographic film actor. NoFap Content-control software Accountability software Parental controls Employee monitoring software.

Feminist Religious Sex-positive feminist.

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As there is no direct evidence of the use of these objects, it is speculated that they may have been used in religious rituals, [12] or for a more directly sexual purpose.

Archaeologists in Germany reported in April that they had found what they believe is a 7,year-old scene depicting a male figurine bending over a female figurine in a manner suggestive of sexual intercourse.

The male figure has been named Adonis von Zschernitz. A vast number of artifacts have been discovered from ancient Mesopotamia depicting explicit sexual intercourse.

Depictions of sexual intercourse were not part of the general repertory of ancient Egyptian formal art, [17] but rudimentary sketches of sexual intercourse have been found on pottery fragments and in graffiti.

The ancient Greeks often painted sexual scenes on their ceramics , many of them famous for being some of the earliest depictions of same-sex relations and pederasty.

Greek art often portrays sexual activity, but it is impossible to distinguish between what to them was illegal or immoral since the ancient Greeks did not have a concept of pornography.

Their art simply reflects scenes from daily life, some more sexual than others. Carved phalli can be seen in places of worship such as the temple of Dionysus on Delos , while a common household item and protective charm was the herm , a statue consisting of a head on a square plinth with a prominent phallus on the front.

The Greek male ideal had a small penis, an aesthetic the Romans later adopted. There are numerous sexually explicit paintings and sculptures from the ruined Roman buildings in Pompeii and Herculaneum but the original purposes of the depictions can vary.

On one hand, in the Villa of the Mysteries , there is a ritual flagellation scene that is clearly associated with a religious cult and this image can be seen as having religious significance rather than sexual.

On the other hand, graphic paintings in a brothel advertise sexual services in murals above each door. In Pompeii, phalli and testicles engraved in the sidewalks were created to aid visitors in finding their way by pointing to the prostitution and entertainment district as well as general decoration.

The Romans considered depictions of sex to be decoration in good taste, and indeed the pictures reflect the sexual mores and practices of their culture, as on the Warren Cup.

Sex acts that were considered taboo such as oral sex were depicted in baths for comic effect. Large phalli were often used near entryways, for the phallus was a good-luck charm, and the carvings were common in homes.

One of the first objects excavated when the complex was discovered was a marble statue showing the god Pan having sex with a goat , a detailed depiction of bestiality considered so obscene that it was not on public display until the year and remains in the Secret Museum, Naples.

The Moche of Peru are another ancient people that sculpted explicit scenes of sex into their pottery. At least Moche ceramics have sexual themes.

The most frequently depicted act is anal sex , with scenes of vaginal penetration being very rare. Most pairs are heterosexual, with carefully carved genitalia to show that the anus, rather than the vagina, is being penetrated.

Often, an infant is depicted breastfeeding while the couple has sex. Fellatio is sometimes represented, but cunnilingus is absent.

Some depict male skeletons masturbating, or being masturbated by living women. Rafael Larco Hoyle speculates that their purpose was much different than that of other early cultures.

He states that the Moche believed that the world of the dead was the exact opposite of the world of the living. Therefore, for funeral offerings, they made vessels showing sex acts such as masturbation , fellatio and anal sex that would not result in offspring.

The hope was that in the world of the dead, they would take on their opposite meaning and result in fertility. The erotic pottery of the Moche is depicted in Hoyle's book Checan.

There has been a long tradition of erotic painting in the East. India , Japan , China , Persia and other lands produced copious quantities of art celebrating the human faculty of love.

The works depict love between men and women as well as same-sex love. Another notable treatise on human sexuality is The Perfumed Garden by the Tunisian Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Nafzawi, dating to the fifteenth century.

In Japan, the erotic art found its greatest flowering in the medium of the woodblock prints. Harunobu , Utamaro produced a large number of works.

Painted hand scrolls were also very popular. Shunga only ceased to be produced in the 19th century when photography was invented.

The Chinese tradition of the erotic was also extensive, with examples of the art dating back as far as the Yuan Dynasty — The erotic art of China reached its peak during the latter part of the Ming Dynasty — In both China and Japan, eroticism played a prominent role in the development of the novel.

The Tale of Genji , the work by an 11th-century Japanese noblewoman that is often called "the world's first novel," traces the many affairs of its hero in discreet but carnal language.

The Tale of Genji has been celebrated in Japan since it was written, but The Plum in the Golden Vase was suppressed as pornography for much of its history, and replaced on the list of four classics.

Erotic scenes in medieval illuminated manuscripts also appeared, but were seen only by those who could afford the extremely expensive hand-made books.

Most of these drawings occur in the margins of books of hours. Many medieval scholars think that the pictures satisfied the medieval cravings for both erotic pictures and religion in one book, especially since it was often the only book someone owned.

Other scholars think the drawings in the margins were a kind of moral caution, but the depiction of priests and other ranking officials engaged in sex acts suggests political origins as well.

It was not until the invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg that sexually explicit images entered into any type of mass circulation in the western world.

Before that time, erotic images, being hand made and expensive, were limited to upper class males. Even the British Museum had a Secretum filled with a collection of ancient erotica donated by the upper class doctor, George Witt in The remains of the collection, including his scrapbooks, still reside in Cupboard 55, though the majority of it has recently been integrated with the museum's other collections.

Prints became very popular in Europe from the middle of the fifteenth century, and because of their compact nature, were very suitable for erotic depictions that did not need to be permanently on display.

Nudity and the revival of classical subjects were associated from very early on in history of the print, and many prints of subjects from mythological subjects were clearly in part an excuse for erotic material; the engravings of Giovanni Battista Palumba in particular.

An earthier eroticism is seen in a printing plate of for an Allegory of Copulation where a young couple are having sex, with the woman's legs high in the air, at one end of a bench, while at the other end a huge penis, with legs and wings and a bell tied around the bottom of the glans, is climbing onto the bench.

Although the plate has been used until worn out, then re-engraved and heavily used again, none of the contemporary impressions printed, which probably ran into the hundreds, have survived.

The loves of classical gods, especially those of Jupiter detailed in Ovid provided many subjects where actual sex was the key moment in the story, and its depiction was felt to be justified.

In particular Leda and the Swan , where the god appeared as a swan and seduced the woman, was depicted very explicitly; it seems that this—rather strangely—was considered more acceptable because he appeared as a bird.

Michelangelo's Leda was a fairly large painting showing sex in progress, and one of the hundreds of illustrations to the book the Hypnerotomachia Poliphili of shows Leda and the Swan having sex on top of a triumphal car watched by a crowd.

In the 16th century an attempt to print erotic material caused a scandal when the well-known Italian artist Marcantonio Raimondi published I Modi in , an illustrated book of 16 "postures" or sexual positions.

Raimondi was subsequently imprisoned by the Pope Clement VII and all copies of the illustrations were destroyed.

Raimondi based the engravings on a series of erotic paintings that Giulio Romano was doing as a commission for the Palazzo del Te in Mantua.

Though the two depictions were very similar, only Raimondi was prosecuted because his engravings were capable of being seen by the public.

Romano did not know of the engravings until Pietro Aretino came to see the original paintings while Romano was still working on them. Aretino then composed sixteen explicit sonnets "both in your cunt and your behind, my prick will make me happy, and you happy and blissful" [3] [34] to go with the paintings and secured Raimondi's release from prison.

I Modi was then published a second time in , with the poems and the pictures, making this the first time erotic text and images were combined, though the papacy once more seized all the copies it could find.

Raimondi escaped prison that time, but the censorship was so strict that no complete editions of the original printings have ever been found.

The text in existence is only a copy of a copy that was discovered years later. In the 17th century, numerous examples of pornographic or erotic literature began to circulate.

These included L'Ecole des Filles , a French work printed in that is considered to be the beginning of pornography in France. It consists of an illustrated dialogue between two women, a year-old and her more worldly cousin, and their explicit discussions about sex.

The author remains anonymous to this day, though a few suspected authors served light prison sentences for supposed authorship of the work.

During the Enlightenment , many of the French free-thinkers began to exploit pornography as a medium of social criticism and satire. Libertine pornography was a subversive social commentary and often targeted the Catholic Church and general attitudes of sexual repression.

The market for the mass-produced, inexpensive pamphlets soon became the bourgeoisie, making the upper class worry, as in England, that the morals of the lower class and weak-minded would be corrupted since women, slaves and the uneducated were seen as especially vulnerable during that time.

The stories and illustrations sold in the galleries of the Palais Royal , along with the services of prostitutes were often anti-clerical and full of misbehaving priests, monks and nuns, a tradition that in French pornography continued into the 20th century.

In the period leading up to the French Revolution , pornography was also used as political commentary; Marie Antoinette was often targeted with fantasies involving orgies, lesbian activities and the paternity of her children, and rumours circulated about the supposed sexual inadequacies of Louis XVI.

They were often accompanied by illustrations and served as political commentary for their author. While the text satirised the literary conventions and fashionable manners of 18th century England, it was more scandalous for depicting a woman, the narrator, enjoying and even reveling in sexual acts with no dire moral or physical consequences.

The text is hardly explicit as Cleland wrote the entire book using euphemisms for sex acts and body parts, employing 50 different ones just for the term penis.

Two small earthquakes were credited to the book by the Bishop of London and Cleland was arrested and briefly imprisoned, but Fanny Hill continued to be published and is one of the most reprinted books in the English language.

However, it was not legal to own this book in the United States until and in the United Kingdom until In , Louis Daguerre presented the first practical process of photography to the French Academy of Sciences.

Artists adopted the new technology as a new way to depict the nude form, which in practice was the feminine form. In so doing, at least initially, they tried to follow the styles and traditions of the art form.

Each had to be registered with the French government and approved or they could not be sold. However, the realism of a photograph as opposed to the idealism of a painting made many of these intrinsically erotic.

The daguerreotypes were not without drawbacks, however. The main difficulty was that they could only be reproduced by photographing the original picture since each image was an original and the all-metal process does not use negatives.

In addition, the earliest daguerreotypes had exposure times ranging from three to fifteen minutes, making them somewhat impractical for portraiture.

Unlike earlier drawings, action could not be shown. The poses that the models struck had to be held very still for a long time.

Because of this, the standard pornographic image shifted from one of two or more people engaged in sex acts to a solitary woman exposing her genitals.

Since one picture could cost a week's salary, the audience for these nudes mostly consisted of artists and the upper echelon of society.

It was cheaper to hire a prostitute and experience the sex acts than it was to own a picture of them in the s. This technology produced a type of three dimensional view that suited erotic images quite well.

Although thousands of erotic daguerreotypes were created, only around are known to survive; however, their uniqueness and expense meant that they were once the toys of rich men.

Due to their rarity, the works can sell for more than 10, GBP. In , William Fox Talbot patented the calotype process, the first negative-positive process, making possible multiple copies.

Also, the reduction in exposure time made a true mass market for pornographic pictures possible. The technology was immediately employed to reproduce nude portraits.

Paris soon became the centre of this trade. In only thirteen photography studios existed in Paris; by , there were over Most of them profited by selling illicit pornography to the masses who could now afford it.

The pictures were also sold near train stations , by traveling salesmen and women in the streets who hid them under their dresses.

They were often produced in sets of four, eight or twelve , and exported internationally, mainly to England and the United States.

Both the models and the photographers were commonly from the working class, and the artistic model excuse was increasingly hard to use.

The Victorian pornographic tradition in the UK had three main elements: French photographs, erotic prints sold in shops in Holywell Street, a long vanished London thoroughfare, swept away by the Aldwych , and printed literature.

The ability to reproduce photographs in bulk assisted the rise of a new business individual, the porn dealer. Many of these dealers took advantage of the postal system to send out photographic cards in plain wrappings to their subscribers.

Therefore, the development of a reliable international postal system facilitated the beginnings of the pornography trade.

Victorian pornography had several defining characteristics. It reflected a very mechanistic view of the human anatomy and its functions.

Science, the new obsession, was used to ostensibly study the human body. Consequently, the sexuality of the subject is often depersonalised, and is without any passion or tenderness.

At this time, it also became popular to depict nude photographs of women of exotic ethnicities, under the umbrella of science. Studies of this type can be found in the work of Eadweard Muybridge.

Although he photographed both men and women, the women were often given props like market baskets and fishing poles, making the images of women thinly disguised erotica.

Such cards came to be known in the US as " French postcards ". During the Victorian period, illegal pornographic periodicals such as The Pearl , which ran for eighteen issues between and , circulated clandestinely among circles of elite urban gentlemen.

The new printing processes allowed photographic images to be reproduced easily in black and white, whereas printers were previously limited to engravings, woodcuts and line cuts for illustrations.

First appearing in France, the new magazines featured nude often, burlesque actresses were hired as models and semi-nude photographs on the cover and throughout; while these would now be termed softcore , they were quite shocking for the time.

The publications soon either masqueraded as "art magazines" or publications celebrating the new cult of naturism , with titles such as Photo Bits , Body in Art , Figure Photography , Nude Living and Modern Art for Men.

Another early form of pornography were comic books known as Tijuana bibles that began appearing in the U. These were crude hand drawn scenes often using popular characters from cartoons and culture.

In the s, the word " pinup " was coined to describe pictures torn from men's magazines and calendars and "pinned up" on the wall by U. While the '40s images focused mostly on legs, by the '50s, the emphasis shifted to breasts.

Betty Grable and Marilyn Monroe were two of the most popular pinup models. In the second half of the 20th century, pornography evolved into the men's magazines such as Playboy and Modern Man of the s.

In fact, the beginning of the modern men's glossy magazine or girlie magazine can be traced to the purchase by Hugh Hefner of a photograph of Marilyn Monroe to use as the centerfold of his new magazine Playboy.

Soon, this type of magazine was the primary medium in which pornography was consumed. In postwar Britain digest magazines such as Beautiful Britons , Spick and Span , with their interest in nylons and underwear and the racier Kamera published by Harrison Marks were incredibly popular.

These magazines featured nude or semi-nude women in extremely coy or flirtatious poses with no hint of pubic hair. Penthouse , started by Bob Guccione in England in , took a different approach.

Women looked indirectly at the camera, as if they were going about their private idylls. This change of emphasis was influential in erotic depictions of women.

Penthouse was also the first magazine to publish pictures that included pubic hair and full frontal nudity , both of which were considered beyond the bounds of the erotic and in the realm of pornography at the time.

In the late s, magazines began to move into more explicit displays often focusing on the buttocks as standards of what could be legally depicted and what readers wanted to see changed.

By the s, they were focusing on the pubic area and eventually, by the s, featured sexual penetration , lesbianism and homosexuality, group sex , masturbation, and fetishes in the more hard-core magazines such as Hustler.

Magazines for every taste and fetish were soon created due to the low cost of producing them. Magazines for the gay community flourished, the most notable and one of the first being Physique Pictorial , started in by Bob Mizer when his attempt to sell the services of male models; however, Athletic Model Guild photographs of them failed.

It was published in black and white, in a very clear yet photographic manner celebrating the male form and was published for nearly 50 years.

The magazine was innovative in its use of props and costumes to depict the now standard gay icons like cowboys , gladiators and sailors.

Production of erotic films commenced almost immediately after the invention of the motion picture. Also in Fatima's Coochie-Coochie Dance [54] was released as a short kinetoscope film featuring a gyrating belly dancer named Fatima.

Her gyrating and moving pelvis was censored, one of the earliest films to be censored. It was a second film loop, with a close-up of a nuzzling couple followed by a short peck on the lips "the mysteries of the kiss revealed".

The kissing scene was denounced as shocking and pornographic to early moviegoers and caused the Roman Catholic Church to call for censorship and moral reform - because kissing in public at the time could lead to prosecution.

Because Pirou is nearly unknown as a pornographic filmmaker, credit is often given to other films for being the first. In Black and White and Blue , one of the most scholarly attempts to document the origins of the clandestine 'stag film' trade, Dave Thompson recounts ample evidence that such an industry first had sprung up in the brothels of Buenos Aires and other South American cities by around the start of the 20th century, and then quickly spread through Central Europe over the following few years; however, none of these earliest pornographic films is known to survive.

According to Patrick Robertson's Film Facts , "the earliest pornographic motion picture which can definitely be dated is A L'Ecu d'Or ou la bonne auberge " made in France in ; the plot depicts a weary soldier who has a tryst with a servant girl at an inn.

The Argentinian El Satario might be even older; it has been dated to somewhere between and He also notes that "the oldest surviving pornographic films are contained in America's Kinsey Collection.

One film demonstrates how early pornographic conventions were established. The German film Am Abend is "a ten-minute film which begins with a woman masturbating alone in her bedroom, and progresses to scenes of her with a man performing straight sex, fellatio and anal penetration.

In Austria , Johann Schwarzer formed his Saturn-Film production company which was able to produce 52 erotic productions between and , when the company was dissolved by the censorship authorities and the films destroyed.

Soon illegal stag films or blue films, as they were called, were produced underground by amateurs for many years starting in the s.

Processing the film took considerable time and resources, with people using their bathtubs to wash the film when processing facilities often tied to organized crime were unavailable.

The films were then circulated privately or by traveling salesman but being caught viewing or possessing them put one at the risk of prison. The post-war era saw developments that further stimulated the growth of a mass market.

Technological developments, particularly the introduction of the 8mm and super-8 film gauges, resulted in the widespread use of amateur cinematography.

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